Scaling & Sparse Experts
Generalist models adapted to new tasks often outperform specialist models trained only on that task. This line of work aimed to study such generalist models can be created and adapted to new tasks.
One approach we've developed here are the usage of sparse mixture of experts, which enable growing model sizes at constant computational costs.
The scaling of Transformers has driven breakthrough capabilities for language models. At present, the largest large language models (LLMs) contain upwards of 100B parameters. Vision Transformers (ViT) have introduced the same architecture to image and video modelling, but these have not yet been successfully scaled to nearly the same degree; the largest dense ViT contains 4B parameters (Chen et al., 2022). We present a recipe for highly efficient and stable training of a 22B-parameter ViT (ViT-22B) and perform a wide variety of experiments on the resulting model. When evaluated on downstream tasks (often with a lightweight linear model on frozen features), ViT-22B demonstrates increasing performance with scale. We further observe other interesting benefits of scale, including an improved tradeoff between fairness and performance, state-of-the-art alignment to human visual perception in terms of shape/texture bias, and improved robustness. ViT-22B demonstrates the potential for "LLM-like" scaling in vision, and provides key steps towards getting there.
Sparsely-gated Mixture of Experts networks (MoEs) have demonstrated excellent scalability in Natural Language Processing. In Computer Vision, however, almost all performant networks are "dense", that is, every input is processed by every parameter. We present a Vision MoE (V-MoE), a sparse version of the Vision Transformer, that is scalable and competitive with the largest dense networks. When applied to image recognition, V-MoE matches the performance of state-of-the-art networks, while requiring as little as half of the compute at inference time. Further, we propose an extension to the routing algorithm that can prioritize subsets of each input across the entire batch, leading to adaptive per-image compute. This allows V-MoE to trade-off performance and compute smoothly at test-time. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of V-MoE to scale vision models, and train a 15B parameter model that attains 90.35% on ImageNet.
Deep Ensembles for Low-Data Transfer Learning
Basil Mustafa, Carlos Riquelme, Joan Puigcerver, André Susano Pinto, Daniel Keysers, Neil Houlsby
In the low-data regime, it is difficult to train good supervised models from scratch. Instead practitioners turn to pre-trained models, leveraging transfer learning. Ensembling is an empirically and theoretically appealing way to construct powerful predictive models, but the predominant approach of training multiple deep networks with different random initialisations collides with the need for transfer via pre-trained weights. In this work, we study different ways of creating ensembles from pre-trained models. We show that the nature of pre-training itself is a performant source of diversity, and propose a practical algorithm that efficiently identifies a subset of pre-trained models for any downstream dataset. The approach is simple: Use nearest-neighbour accuracy to rank pre-trained models, fine-tune the best ones with a small hyperparameter sweep, and greedily construct an ensemble to minimise validation cross-entropy. When evaluated together with strong baselines on 19 different downstream tasks (the Visual Task Adaptation Benchmark), this achieves state-of-the-art performance at a much lower inference budget, even when selecting from over 2,000 pre-trained models. We also assess our ensembles on ImageNet variants and show improved robustness to distribution shift.
Scalable transfer learning with expert models
Joan Puigcerver, Carlos Riquelme, Basil Mustafa, Cedric Renggli, André Susano Pinto, Sylvain Gelly, Daniel Keysers, Neil Houlsby
ICLR 2020 · arxiv
Transfer of pre-trained representations can improve sample efficiency and reduce computational requirements for new tasks. However, representations used for transfer are usually generic, and are not tailored to a particular distribution of downstream tasks. We explore the use of expert representations for transfer with a simple, yet effective, strategy. We train a diverse set of experts by exploiting existing label structures, and use cheap-to-compute performance proxies to select the relevant expert for each target task. This strategy scales the process of transferring to new tasks, since it does not revisit the pre-training data during transfer. Accordingly, it requires little extra compute per target task, and results in a speed-up of 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to competing approaches. Further, we provide an adapter-based architecture able to compress many experts into a single model. We evaluate our approach on two different data sources and demonstrate that it outperforms baselines on over 20 diverse vision tasks in both cases.