Natural language has proven an incredible source of open-ended supervision for visiual understanding, as well as a flexible and interpretable input & output API for models. 

Sigmoid Loss for Language Image Pre-Training

Xiaohua Zhai, Basil Mustafa, Alexander Kolesnikov, Lucas Beyer
ICCV2023 · arxiv 

We propose a simple pairwise sigmoid loss for image-text pre-training. Unlike standard contrastive learning with softmax normalization, the sigmoid loss operates solely on image-text pairs and does not require a global view of the pairwise similarities for normalization. The sigmoid loss simultaneously allows further scaling up the batch size, while also performing better at smaller batch sizes. With only four TPUv4 chips, we can train a Base CLIP model at 4k batch size and a Large LiT model at 20k batch size, the latter achieves 84.5% ImageNet zero-shot accuracy in two days. This disentanglement of the batch size from the loss further allows us to study the impact of examples vs pairs and negative to positive ratio. Finally, we push the batch size to the extreme, up to one million, and find that the benefits of growing batch size quickly diminish, with a more reasonable batch size of 32k being sufficient. We hope our research motivates further explorations in improving the quality and efficiency of language-image pre-training.

CLIPPO: Image-and-Language Understanding from Pixels Only

Michael Tschannen, Basil Mustafa, Neil Houlsby
CVPR 2023 · arxiv 

Multimodal models are becoming increasingly effective, in part due to unified components, such as the Transformer architecture. However, multimodal models still often consist of many task- and modality-specific pieces and training procedures. For example, CLIP (Radford et al., 2021) trains independent text and image towers via a contrastive loss. We explore an additional unification: the use of a pure pixel-based model to perform image, text, and multimodal tasks. Our model is trained with contrastive loss alone, so we call it CLIP-Pixels Only (CLIPPO). CLIPPO uses a single encoder that processes both regular images and text rendered as images. CLIPPO performs image-based tasks such as retrieval and zero-shot image classification almost as well as CLIP, with half the number of parameters and no text-specific tower or embedding. When trained jointly via image-text contrastive learning and next-sentence contrastive learning, CLIPPO can perform well on natural language understanding tasks, without any word-level loss (language modelling or masked language modelling), outperforming pixel-based prior work. Surprisingly, CLIPPO can obtain good accuracy in visual question answering, simply by rendering the question and image together. Finally, we exploit the fact that CLIPPO does not require a tokenizer to show that it can achieve strong performance on multilingual multimodal retrieval without

Multimodal Contrastive Learning with LIMoE: the Language-Image Mixture of Experts

Basil Mustafa*, Carlos Riquelme*, Joan Puigcerver*, Rodolphe Jenatton, Neil Houlsby
NeurIPS 2022 · arxiv · Google AI blog 

Large sparsely-activated models have obtained excellent performance in multiple domains.However, such models are typically trained on a single modality at a time.We present the Language-Image MoE, LIMoE, a sparse mixture of experts model capable of multimodal learning.LIMoE accepts both images and text simultaneously, while being trained using a contrastive loss.MoEs are a natural fit for a multimodal backbone, since expert layers can learn an appropriate partitioning of modalities.However, new challenges arise; in particular, training stability and balanced expert utilization, for which we propose an entropy-based regularization scheme.Across multiple scales, we demonstrate performance improvement over dense models of equivalent computational cost.LIMoE-L/16 trained comparably to CLIP-L/14 achieves 77.9% zero-shot ImageNet accuracy (vs. 76.2%), and when further scaled to H/14 (with additional data) it achieves 83.8%, approaching state-of-the-art methods which use custom per-modality backbones and pre-training schemes.We analyse the quantitative and qualitative behavior of LIMoE, and demonstrate phenomena such as differing treatment of the modalities and the emergence of modality-specific experts.

Effective scaling and a flexible task interface enable large language models to excel at many tasks. PaLI (Pathways Language and Image model) extends this approach to the joint modeling of language and vision. PaLI generates text based on visual and textual inputs, and with this interface performs many vision, language, and multimodal tasks, in many languages. To train PaLI, we make use of large pretrained encoder-decoder language models and Vision Transformers (ViTs). This allows us to capitalize on their existing capabilities and leverage the substantial cost of training them. We find that joint scaling of the vision and language components is important. Since existing Transformers for language are much larger than their vision counterparts, we train the largest ViT to date (ViT-e) to quantify the benefits from even larger-capacity vision models. To train PaLI, we create a large multilingual mix of pretraining tasks, based on a new image-text training set containing 10B images and texts in over 100 languages. PaLI achieves state-of-the-art in multiple vision and language tasks (such as captioning, visual question-answering, scene-text understanding), while retaining a simple, modular, and scalable design.

LiT: Zero-Shot Transfer with Locked-image text Tuning

Xiaohua Zhai*, Xiao Wang*, Basil Mustafa*, Andreas Steiner*, Daniel Keysers, Alexander Kolesnikov, Lucas Beyer*
CVPR2022 · arxiv · Google AI blog · demo 

This paper presents contrastive-tuning, a simple method employing contrastive training to align image and text models while still taking advantage of their pre-training. In our empirical study we find that locked pre-trained image models with unlocked text models work best. We call this instance of contrastive-tuning "Locked-image Tuning" (LiT), which just teaches a text model to read out good representations from a pre-trained image model for new tasks. A LiT model gains the capability of zero-shot transfer to new vision tasks, such as image classification or retrieval. The proposed LiT is widely applicable; it works reliably with multiple pre-training methods (supervised and unsupervised) and across diverse architectures (ResNet, Vision Transformers and MLP-Mixer) using three different image-text datasets. With the transformer-based pre-trained ViT-g/14 model, the LiT model achieves 85.2% zero-shot transfer accuracy on the ImageNet test set, and 82.5% on the challenging out-of-distribution ObjectNet test set.